Guide Damaged (Uniformity Book 2)

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Ulges et al. These methods are demonstrated on open books, and assume there is no self-occlusion in the pages. Global conformal mapping is used in Brown and Pisula to unfold a document; however, this approach still makes strong assumptions about the type of deformations present. Samko et al. The scrolls are scanned using X-ray tomography to produce 3D volumetric data. These data are treated as a set of volumetric slices.

However, this is also unsuitable for our problem because it assumes that the deformation to the document is equal throughout, where parchment as previously discussed is likely to buckle and twist in non-isometric patterns. In addition to the virtual unfolding of documents, a number of techniques have been developed to correct aspects of historical document degradation other than geometric distortion, namely, fading of the text as the ink degrades, and bleed-through of the text as the writing support deteriorates.

These include multispectral imaging Easton et al. However, preliminary experiments with this approach showed that there would be no improvement in visible text using multispectral imaging with the Great Parchment Book MacDonald, n. Ink bleed removal correcting images from ink seeping through from the other side of the folio; Huang et al. We therefore came to the conclusion that existing methods previously proposed for complex document acquisition suffered from occlusions narrow areas which could not be captured due to the physicality of the document or required complex manual alignment of partial scans.

However, there are existing, wider approaches in cultural heritage digitization and in computational 3D graphics which have proved useful, allowing us to build on their techniques and tools, and informed and enhanced our work. Digitally flattening a document requires that we first capture a digital surrogate, to which flattening and restoration algorithms can be applied. Although existing flattening methods for documents did not hold solutions for us, there is much previous work dealing with the general topic of 3D reconstruction of objects, and many different established pipelines for undertaking such work.

Contact approaches which acquire the shape of an object by probing it with sensors are obviously unsuitable for use on fragile historical artefacts. Non-contact methods exist which can be categorized into active methods emitting some form of light or non-visible radiation, then detecting how the light interacts with the object to recover its shape, although conservators can have concerns about the use of lasers and such like in proximity to delicate objects and passive methods which analyse reflected ambient radiation. Both of these approaches have been much used in the digitization of a range of cultural and heritage objects.

We therefore had a range of approaches to choose from, and our initial phases of development involved investigating different existing approaches to reconstruction and their suitability for our problem. We initially discussed the construction of a bespoke laser scanner, but during that phase determined that the parchment exhibits sufficient visual texture, given its non-uniformity, to allow structure-from-motion 31 algorithms to perform well. Multi-view stereo has been extensively used to record archaeological sites, architectural ruins, and museum objects, usually at larger scale for example, see Pollefeys et al.

The multi-view stereo approach is very well suited for practical, manual acquisition of our deformed parchment, as it allows a user to freely choose viewpoints to reach all parts of the wrinkled surface, capturing a series of 2D digital images that we can then use to generate a 3D model. Previous approaches such as top-down cameras or structured-light scanners would not be able to cope with the self-occlusions in the pages and would produce incomplete reconstructions. Using a hand-held camera allows us to adapt the acquisition process to the highly varying shapes of the parchment, and guarantees full coverage of the parchment surface.

The fact that we only use commonly available hardware makes this approach more accessible: archives and museums are also unlikely to have access to specialized scanning equipment or the expertise required to use it. In addition, there are already existing computational algorithms for multi-view stereo that we can adopt and adapt to fit our task. There are now free end-to-end web services which compute textured 3D models from an uncalibrated set of 2D images: both ARC 3D 32 Vergauwen and Gool, ; Tingdahl and Van Gool, and Autodesk D Catch , 33 are popular in cultural heritage digitization 34 and other services are also available.

This is a widely used 36 dense multi-view stereo reconstruction workflow, performing very well on even highly unstructured image sets containing variants in lighting, image exposure, and lens type Remondino et al. VisualSFM thus provided us with an approach and flexible tools upon which to build our digital reconstruction pipeline. We first capture a set of high-resolution images and then perform two pre-processing steps: reconstruction, and computation of texture maps. We developed a viewer that allows a user to navigate the surface of this model, and to generate flattened representations of specific, local areas of the document, to aid interpretation.

Additional, advanced mesh parameterization was then developed to compute a map that flattens the 3D surface into the 2D plane while introducing as little distortion as possible to produce images of the whole document, virtually recovered to an extent not possible with physical restoration methods. We detail here the capture, reconstruction, and computation of texture map phases. We also discuss how we can assess the quality of our reconstructions by relating them to established digitization standards in the cultural and heritage sector.

Our digital models can be viewed and shared, allowing the contents of the book to be accessed more easily and without further handling of the original document. We describe both our interactive viewer and our global flattening approach, presenting results of our pipeline at every stage. First, it should be noted that throughout the capture phase, it was imperative that the Great Parchment Book did not come to any harm. The studio setting at LMA was discussed with conservators, and a volunteer, a qualified conservator, assisted with handling the document.

We evaluated the use of appropriate lights and supports for the parchment. As noted above, digitization happened soon after conservation, with the folios returning to store in improved housing: the conservation and digitization elements of the project are closely intertwined. The first step of the acquisition process was to capture a set of overlapping 2D images that cover the entirety of the parchment see Fig.

Each parchment was placed on a table covered with a black velvet cloth to provide a matt background surrounded by three large, evenly spaced diffuse lights to provide uniform illumination and minimize the amount of shade cast on the parchment due to self-shadowing. Kazim Pal undertaking the digitization process, which required much movement around each folio. You can also see here a set of small ceramic balls placed around the folio which we originally had planned to use for calibration: these were not required as our work progressed but they remain in the capture shots.

Video 1 which is available in the online version of this paper shows a time-lapse of a typical capture sequence, indicating the range of angles required to gain a complete coverage of each folio side, and indicating that the digitization process was non-contact. For each folio, we first took a set of images typically between eight and ten in a circular formation so that the entire parchment is visible in each image. We then took many more close-up images, making sure to cover the entire surface of the folio thoroughly. For highly distorted areas of the parchment where the text had shrunk to a very small size, we use a macro lens to obtain extreme close-up images.

Although algorithms exist for automatically selecting optimal camera viewpoints Ahmadabadian et al. A comprehensive image set for a single parchment folio, showing a range of overview, detail, and macro shots to capture the detail of the surface from various angles. Screenshot of a visualization of the camera positions used to image a single folio side, indicating the range of movement required around the folio to gain enough coverage of the surface to build a robust model.

Damage Prediction in Woven and Non-woven Fabric Composites

In total, there were folio sides to be captured this is less than double the total number of folios——because some folios have a blank side , with of these requiring macro capture. We captured 14, images. Typically, an image set for an individual folio will contain between fifty and sixty 22MP images, but can sometimes be as large as eighty or more images for extremely deformed folios, or as low as twenty or thirty for relatively flat ones. The most images captured per folio was eighty-nine, and the fewest was eleven, but there was an average of forty-nine images per folio: this indicates the variation in their shape.

It took 10—15 min to capture each folio side, meaning twelve folios could be captured in 1 day. The entire capture phase took 24 days of work, although these were not consecutive but were dependent both on access to facilities at LMA, and fitting in with the conservation procedures. This process also computes, along with the point reconstruction, calibration parameters for each input image such as focal length and camera rotation which allows us to determine the camera viewing direction of each input image. Middle: Triangle meshes generated by applying Poisson Surface Reconstruction to the point clouds.

Bottom: Textured meshes generated by back-projecting and blending the original images. The reconstruction is computed up to an arbitrary scale, so the distances in the resulting object space do not correspond to the true distances in real-life space. To correct for this, we allow a user to mark points on the ColorChecker which are a known distance apart, and we then triangulate their positions in object space to compute a scaling factor to allow distances in the model to match those in real-life space. As can be seen in Fig.

A meshing process smoothly interpolates a surface over holes. This algorithm requires very little parameter tuning we use the exact same parameters for every reconstruction , is resilient to noisy data, and is designed to interpolate holes in the point reconstruction. The algorithm makes use of the normal vectors associated with each point that is generated as part of the PMVS output, making it a natural choice to follow PMVS.

Examples of our reconstructed meshes are shown in Fig. The final part of our reconstruction pipeline is to generate texture maps for the triangle meshes. We use the same texture-atlas generation method as Esteban and Schmitt , originally proposed by Schmitt and Yemez , since it is simple to implement and avoids having to compute a texture parameterization for the mesh. The resulting 3D model contains —MB of data per folio.

Professional archival standards for document digitization describe minimum resolution for raster images Federal Agencies Digitization Initiative, In the case of planar 2D artefacts that are imaged with flatbed scanners or in a fronto-parallel camera image, this minimum resolution is usually expressed in dots per inch DPI : a measure of the sampling frequency of the document being imaged which gives the number of samples i. However, our generated models are not 2D images. How can we effectively assess their quality in relation to archival standards?

Measuring DPI is simple when digitizing a single flat object from a front-facing viewpoint.

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In our case, however, with a 3D reconstruction texture generated by blending many different images from different viewing distances and viewing angles, the effective sampling density of the reconstructed parchment varies across the surrogate surface, dependent on the acquisition conditions of the images contributing to each surface point.

Therefore, assigning a single DPI quality label would not sufficiently characterize the data set. Also, since we cannot guarantee that every point on the manuscript surface is imaged from a fronto-parallel viewpoint, there will inevitably be a degree of anisotropy or stretch in the sampling. We generated this by looking at a distribution or histogram of effective DPI see Pal, , p. Histogram of effective DPI of a model of one folio: x -axis, size of pixel by effective DPI, y -axis, number of pixels with that count. Most of the mesh vertices are sampled over DPI, with a much smaller number of vertices having been captured at DPI.

It also shows that the distribution is bi-modal, with a small second cluster of vertices sampled at around DPI. We argue that this analysis provides an effective way to gauge the quality of a data set in terms easily communicated to archivists and conservators, and demonstrates that our models are of high-enough quality to be of use to historians and palaeographers who are used to relying on digital images of manuscripts of similar spatial quality. With the quality of our reconstructions assured, we could now proceed with exploring and exploiting the models to improve access to the document.

Our next innovation was to create an interactive system 41 that allows a user to navigate the surface of the 3D reconstruction of the Great Parchment Book, virtually flattening specific areas of interest when required. We circumvented this difficulty by using an interactive viewer which presents a locally flattened view of the region of text that the user is currently focussed on, by undistorting local subsets of the mesh. This system aims to improve the accessibility and legibility of text in highly distorted documents, in a manner which does not require a global parameterization: since areas are being independently flattened, reconstruction artefacts elsewhere in the mesh will not affect them.

This approach is inspired by the observation that, when transcribing a text, a palaeographer will only ever inspect a small section of a folio at any given time Youtie, and is analogous to avoiding the distortions of large map projections when attempting to flatten a globe onto a 2D plane Snyder, It is, therefore, unnecessary to un-distort the entire folio at once if the primary goal is to simply expose the content in a form that can be read.

Instead, if a user looks at a particular region, it should be displayed in a way that is optimal in terms of its readability. Text should be visible, should not be distorted, and lines of text should be rectified so that they run horizontally from left to right, as is to be expected for this document. The interface provides the capability of visualizing the text in ways which are impossible with the physical document.

Local flattening was accomplished by using two modes: a local-affine mode renders the mesh in 3D and transforms it so that the target region is oriented to face the camera; and local-flattening mode allows the target region to be flattened into 2D independently from the rest of the mesh.

We can see the results of this system in a selection of flattened sections of parchment from different folios of the Great Parchment Book see Figs 9 and The local-affine view and local-flattening mode. Between the left and middle image, the user pans slightly to the right. In the right hand image, the user stops panning and local flattening is performed, removing perspective distortions and revealing otherwise hidden text. Video 2 which is available in the online version of this paper shows a user panning across the surface of a folio and carrying out local flattening in various areas of interest.

Sections of parchment folio rendered in, left, local-affine mode and, right, local-flattening mode.


The top right and middle right sections show text obscured by a fold which is made visible when the sections are flattened. In the bottom left image a large amount of text is obscured by a fold but this previously occluded section of text becomes visible when the mesh is locally unfolded. Our system also addresses the issue of provenance. For historians studying the text through a digital representation, it is important to be able to judge whether a feature present in the surrogate was also present in the original text or whether it is an artefact of the reconstruction pipeline.

Terras discusses this issue at length, focussing mainly on imaging artefacts, and the London Charter for the Computer-based Visualization of Cultural Heritage Denard, stresses the importance of storing paradata which documents the process of generating visualizations of cultural heritage. In our case the most likely source of error is the 3D reconstruction process. We therefore document the provenance of the reconstruction by providing the user with smart access to the original image collection: for a given 3D view, the system displays the portion of an original image that best depicts the currently observed part of the parchment.

By comparing the 3D reconstruction with the original images the user can better assess the content of the text in areas of the 3D reconstruction which seem to contain errors. This system was used by the palaeographer who compiled the transcription of the Great Parchment Book, using our system alongside access to the original folios to gain a fuller understanding of the text contained within the parchment. The provenance feature was demonstrably useful in resolving any ambiguities in the model, and access to the local-flattening tool helped in the interpretation of the text.

With a system successfully in place to allow navigating and local flattening of areas of parchment, we were able to return to the difficult and optional, for our purposes issue of whether we could produce globally flattened areas of the text that had as little distortion as possible to produce useful 2D images of the unfolded manuscript. Mesh parameterization computes a map that flattens a 3D surface into the 2D plane by defining some geometric measure of distortion which the algorithm attempts to minimize in the mapping see Sheffer et al.

Our task is to estimate the complex deformation of the parchment and invert it, thus restoring the original shape of the parchment. There are various constraints that help us in this approach as the previous research in this area showed, it is important to understand documentary features to be able to address them. Before being damaged, the text in the documents was written in a uniform glyph size, in equally spaced horizontal lines, and with strict vertical page margins.

We can therefore attempt to find a scaling field which captures the degree of shrinking or stretching of the text at each point, and an orientation field which captures the text direction on the document surface. We use a scale constraint based on identifying a sparse set of single characters those without ascenders or descenders and use template-matching-based optical character recognition to compute the bounding box, or x-height, of the text.

We then use a semi-automatic approach to line detection which is complicated by distortions, discolouration, fading, and ascending and descending glyphs : once a user begins to manually trace a line on the folio, the system continuously proposed a suggestion of the next section of line. The user can refine line identification until they are happy with the resulting transformation, and we use these measures of line and scale to invert the deformation of the text see Figs 11, 12 and The automatic tracing line green is misguided by the presence of ascenders and descenders.

Bottom: After a single user correction, the suggestion moves back to the baselines. In this way, the user can help provide the constraints with which to carry out inverse distortion of the text. All steps of our global flattening algorithm. The original 3D model of the distorted folio is flattened using the estimate from the OCR analysis and the interactive refinement of constraints provided by the user, until a satisfactory result is achieved.

Damaged (Uniformity #2) by Ethan Stone

Finally, we remove the intensity and colour variations from the texture, should that be required. On the left, the distorted parchments are annotated with the constraints shown here in blue. On the right, the documents are virtually restored, flattening the folios and removing the distortion. Even after successful inverse distortion, the texture of the document still exhibits intensity and colour variations which convey the false impression the document is still distorted and not flat. These variations are a combination of shading baked into the texture at the time of acquisition, and the genuine discolouration of the parchment which has taken place in the course of the damage.

While preserving these observed appearance variations is a useful feature to study the rectified text in the context of the original damage, which mitigates the risk of misinterpreting potential artefacts introduced by over-processing the content Terras, , Bentkowska-Kafel, , many readers will prefer a cleaned-up colour appearance in addition to the unwarped geometry.

This is achieved by independently scaling each colour channel by a spatially varying factor, so that all ink-free regions of the parchment roughly match the same colour see Fig. An overview of the processing pipeline, and a selection of successfully generated flattened images, is presented in Fig. Folio 1A of the Great Parchment Book flattened by our algorithm, shown with and without shading and discolouration, and with a detail image showing a close-up view of a region of text after full reconstruction.

There are various ways in which this project has produced outputs that will have lasting impact. Obviously, the focus of this article has been on the acquisition and restoration methods that have enabled the contents of the Great Parchment Book to be accessed by researchers more easily and without further handling of the original, fragile, folios, assisting the production of the new transcript of the text. Originally tested on a small subset of six pages of parchment Pal et al. The project worked with web-designers Headscape 46 to develop a website that both kept the user community informed via the means of a project blog, and now hosts a readable and exploitable version of text, comprising a scholarly digital edition which features a searchable transcription as well as a glossary of the manuscript contents.

The aim of the website is that it should be accessible and useful to a wide range of people—academic researchers and local and family historians alike. Our new flattened images were integrated into the website of the Great Parchment Book project alongside: images of the folio before conservation treatment; a new scholarly transcription of the original text generated after conservation and digital reconstruction—which has revealed significantly more information on practically every folio, providing a rich, new resource on the history of Ulster for historians—and a version of this new transcription more suitable for non-scholarly audiences.

A video providing an overview of all aspects of the conservation, acquisition, digital reconstruction, transcription, and encoding, is available in the online version of this paper. An original, newly conserved folio from the book was also displayed during the first ten months of this exhibition a rotating schedule includes various archival objects to ensure renewed interest. Both the website and the exhibition have been very well received: the exhibition had nearly , physical visitors in its first year and has had over , visitors at time of writing.

Overall visitor feedback from the exhibition has been very positive, noting that it gives a balanced overview of the plantation for a variety of international audiences who may be learning about it for the first time, with high praise for the audio visual and original artefact and document material McConnell, The website has received over , page views since it was launched in May , and there is considerable interest in the project from academics who study the period. Interactions with the research community interested in the Great Parchment Book also occurred regularly in the form of workshops and presentations throughout the duration of this project: these are described as part of the project blog.

As well as this public engagement success, and the creation of a new scholarly resource, both the conservation and computation approaches in this project have led to further information regarding method and process that will benefit others. The research done on parchment degradation, treatments, sample preparation, trial procedures, results of the tests, and the methodology applied to repair the Great Parchment Book were recorded through photographic and written documentation.

Regular updates were shared on the Great Parchment Book blog and are now referred to extensively by conservators, providing a resource for others attempting to conserve similarly damaged parchment, who are often in direct contact with LMA regarding their approach. LMA will offer training courses by the project conservator in the future, following the interest in this from the sector Smith, From a computational point of view, the project has had numerous successes. We have developed a pipeline for low-cost acquisition of highly detailed 3D models of a fire-damaged parchment, adapting previously available techniques mostly used for large-scale historic and architectural structures, to provide an accurate representation of a document.

We have developed a technique to navigate the surface of this resulting model, allowing further close-reading and analysis: although we have used it to analyse the text we are most interested in here, the viewer can also explore arbitrary 3D models, allowing the user to inspect interesting surface details of objects for forensic or palaeographic examination.

Our viewer allows local flattening and manipulation of the underlying mesh to support the type of physical manipulation a historian or palaeographer may wish, but be unable to do, with fragile historical texts or artefacts. Our understanding of the techniques of production of the Great Parchment Book has allowed us to generate high-quality globally flattened images of each folio, virtually smoothing and restoring the text, increasing its legibility for both general and specialist audiences.

We have done so whilst considering palaeographic best practice and bearing data provenance in mind. The fact that our system allows users to interact with both the generated models, and continually to check the veracity of these models by comparing features in the 2D-captured images of the folios, builds trust in our approach. Additionally, we have developed a way in which our approach may be compared to established archival standards for the creation of digital surrogates, demonstrating that our resulting models are of similar spatial quality to 2D images acquired through more normative digitization procedures.

Although we have not carried out detailed user testing of our software with a wide library and archive user community, the member of the project team who relied upon our software to aid in transcribing the Great Parchment Book was wholly positive about their experience in navigating and interrogating the surface of the document via the manipulation of its 3D surrogate, and we have had much successful feedback from the research community attending our events and workshops.

There is now ample potential for taking this software out to a wider use community, and the joy of our approach to the digital acquisition of the text using relatively affordable DSLR for capture, without the need for specialist equipment should mean that this technique can be adopted by others in the library and archive community. UCL has enabled free access to the digital restoration pipeline through a stand-alone version of our software, 52 providing guidance on acquisition through interactive processing via our dedicated viewer, based on best-practice computational approaches.

Meanwhile LMA is exploring the possibility of developing their role as a centre of expertise for the conservation, imaging, and digital restoration of distorted parchments, working in tandem with UCL to maintain the trajectory we have built up working on this project together. The project has also led to further understanding of the structure of the Great Parchment Book itself, aiding in reconstructing the original ordering of its folios.

Prior to conservation, and in the absence of any previous knowledge of the original make-up of the book, the remaining folios had been arranged in a conjectural order. However, in the course of the project described here, where a closer reading of the text was possible and fragments were positively identified, we can be confident that our reordering of the surviving folios as presented on the website, with many of the folios having new folio numbers within each of the Companies is correct, given the numbering of the charters, their arrangement, and the way the text now reads while still taking into account the existence of missing folios or sections of text within charters.

The imaging and reading of individual folios in this project has led to a greater understanding of the document as a whole. These various successes have meant the project has attracted significant public attention. In completing this mammoth project they have succeeded in opening a veritable treasure trove of information relating to a most significant period in the history of Ulster; and illustrating as never before the central role played by the London Guilds in the creation and preservation of the city of Londonderry and its environs.

Robinson, The conservation, digital reconstruction, and resulting transcription of the Great Parchment Book have provided a lasting resource for historians researching the Plantation of Ulster in local, national, and international contexts. Our work on the computational approach to model, navigate, flatten, and ultimately read the damaged parchment will be applicable to similarly damaged material held elsewhere as we believe we are developing best-practice computational approaches to digitizing highly distorted, fire-damaged, historical documents which are all too common in library and archive collections.

We have demonstrated how other existing approaches to this problem have proved inadequate, and adopted a semi-automatic approach to enable an expert user, such as a palaeographer or historian, to guide the estimation of virtually restoring texts to generate useful, accurate representations of the denatured parchment, that allow the text to be more legible.

The digital image outputs from our system are of high quality, and the techniques used to generate them are transparent: they can be trusted by those accessing them. The work described here is not theoretical: the conservation activities, digitization and restoration pipeline developed, and resulting online resource created, were accomplished within a societal context in time to provide a focus for a community celebration of the founding of Londonderry and the th anniversary of the building of its city walls, and a means of reflection on the lasting legacy of the Plantation of Ulster.

We see here, in this project, how a regional museum and metropolitan archive can work together, whilst also interacting with university research mechanisms, to develop a process that helps our interpretation of primary historical texts, presenting online materials of benefit to a wide range of interested individuals, and engaging in community activities to respond to, and reflect upon, an important local and national anniversary.

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The Tube Riders is an indie self-published young-adult page-turner that reviews applaud for being imaginative and exciting. Mega Britain in is a dangerous place. A man known as the Governor rules the country with an iron hand, but within the towering perimeter walls of London Greater Urban Area, anarchy spreads unchecked through the streets.

In the abandoned London Underground station of St. Cannerwells, a group of misfits calling themselves the Tube Riders seek to forget the chaos by playing a dangerous game with trains. The White Mountains is the first book in the young-adult Tripods trilogy, and the Amazon reviews are full of people who read the book when younger and loved it.

Long ago, the Tripods—huge, three-legged machines—descended upon Earth and took control. The people have no control over their thoughts or their lives. For Will, his time of freedom is about to end, unless he can escape to the White Mountains, where the possibility of freedom still exists. The story is set in a seemingly perfect global society. People are continually drugged by means of regular injections so that they can never realize their potential as human beings, but will remain satisfied and cooperative. They are told where to live, when to eat, whom to marry, when to reproduce.

Borrowing from Philip K. The narrator, Floyd Maquina, is a Seeker. Under the surface, Uglies speaks of high-profile government conspiracies and the danger of trusting the omnipresent Big Brother. While the underlying story condemns war and all the side effects thereof, the true thrust of the story is that individual freedoms are far more important than the need for uniformity and the elimination of personal will. In America after the Second Civil War, the Pro-Choice and Pro-Life armies came to an agreement: The Bill of Life states that human life may not be touched from the moment of conception until a child reaches the age of thirteen.

Now a common and accepted practice in society, troublesome or unwanted teens are able to easily be unwound. Or is he mad? What do you, the reader, think about this? Which struck me as a properly anarchist solution. Slightly dated feminist sci-fi, Walk To the End of the World is the first book of the Holdfast Chronicles, a four-book series that took over twenty years to write.

Superstitious belief had ascribed to the fems the guilt for the terrible Wasting that had destroyed the world. They were the ideal scapegoat. The truth was lost in death and decay and buried in history. It was going to be a long journey back…. War with the Newts is a satirical story and concerns the discovery in the Pacific of a sea-dwelling race, an intelligent breed of newts, who are initially enslaved and exploited.

They acquire human knowledge and rebel, leading to a global war for supremacy. In the One State of the great Benefactor, there are no individuals, only numbers. Life is an ongoing process of mathematical precision, a perfectly balanced equation. Primitive passions and instincts have been subdued. Even nature has been defeated, banished behind the Green Wall. But one frontier remains: outer space.

Now, with the creation of the spaceship Integral, that frontier — and whatever alien species are to be found there — will be subjugated to the beneficent yoke of reason. One number, D, chief architect of the Integral, decides to record his thoughts in the final days before the launch for the benefit of less advanced societies. But a chance meeting with the beautiful I results in an unexpected discovery that threatens everything D believes about himself and the One State. The discovery — or rediscovery — of inner space…and that disease the ancients called the soul.

Wither falls short on world-building, but its intense character drama will likely please its targeted audience. A classic feminist novel and well-imagined sci-fi story, Woman on the Edge of Time features a narrator who may or may not be insane. Thirty-seven-year-old Hispanic woman Consuelo Connie Ramos, recently released from forced detention in a mental institution, begins to communicate with a figure that may or may not be imaginary: an androgynous young woman named Luciente.

She realizes that Luciente is from a future, utopian world in which a number of goals of the political and social agenda of the late sixties and early seventies radical movements have been fulfilled. In a ruined and toxic future, a community exists in a giant silo underground, hundreds of stories deep. There, men and women live in a society full of regulations they believe are meant to protect them. How did this book drop from the list?

Hmm… Atwood.. Well, maybe not HA-HA funny…. Really good though. Most of us Sci-Fi fans who have piled up a few decades of varied reading have some we would toss into this list who arent there now. A story where the rulers of planets are drug addicts, where installer transportation is monopolised by a single corporation and where computers have been outlaw, just to name a FEW of the dystopic themes of this novel. Would welcome anyone knowing author or title info.

Good list. Keep Rand and Card on there, as both wrote influential seminal works. I particularly like the Jorj X. Yes, Butler did write dystopian works. You, in an innocent comment, have lead me right to it. You have no idea how long I have looked for this series. No one seemed to have ever heard of it. I understand what I stand for, and why, more thoroughly as a result. And now I have a list of more books to seek out. Seeing some of the entries brings back pleasant memories of my teen years when I had much more free time.

Great list! I have reached it looking for a certain book I read somewhat 25 years ago when I was a boy, but eventually read the whole thing. But maybe you could help me find the book in question. The government is replaced every couple of weeks and the streets become more and more chaotic and violent with every passing page, until the peak point, at the end of the book, when the girl herself join the chaos. Does it ring a bell? Found it! Does that sound familiar to anyone? I found you looking for the same thing. I was thinking of Babel — 17 by Samuel Delany.

Awesome book! Looking for a book about a future world where the children stand in front of a uv light because they stay indoors. Also, they travel by transporters. I read this during my childhood and it may have been a short story. I believe the narrator of the story is a young boy who decides to venture outdoors. Would like to revisit this story. I was caught up by the story too in my childhood.

Not sure about the transporters, but it does have the UV light because it rains all the time. Loved it. My daughter moved to Juneau, Alaska and it reminded her of the story since it is raining there alot. Great list. I got here looking for a book I read some years ago about a dystopian world were people were obligated to live under a dome because everyone thought outside the air was toxic and radioactive. If it sounds familiar tell me please! We by Yevgeny Zamyatin? The world outside is considered toxic and dangeours.

And they were living under something like a glass dome. The best in literature and in prophecies. Great list, thank you! Too much more to read, just need to find the time! Great list and worthwhile comments and suggestions. Thanks all around for any help…. Looking for a short story from the late 60s or early 70s. May have been published in Playboy. Body modification has become wildly popular and stylish…the more extreme the better. A plastic surgeon falls in love with one of his patients-an actress? She had been one of the most beautiful women he had ever seen.

He reminds her there is no going back once she reaches a certain point but her fame grows with each surgery. The style suddenly changes and conventional beauty again reins. Any thoughts on the author or story? The storyline included a man and his friend that awoke the morning after hearing disturbing and thunderous sounds which continued throughout the night before, only to find that much of the population from some unknown worldly attack had turned people in the lower levels of buildings and in the streets to solid metals such as bronze and iron.

They soon discovered those people remained frozen as statues, whereas the more affluent people whom afforded high-rise living or were in the upper floors during the attack, were not turned to bronze or iron, such as the so called street people beneath them, and instead had been transformed into a silicone or crystal like being with rubber like joints and pads on their hands and feet and with cravings for oils and smaller metal bits.

They traveled about and eventually discovered a cure or reversal of the effects which had converted them to their current state. Sounds like Invaders From Rigel by Fletcher Pratt, where many people have been either turned into either metal statues or if they were higher up robots with rubber fingertips that drink oil and absorb electricity. War ensues. Looking for a book I read in high school but lacking on details. Futuristic for the time it was written , gangs, rather short paperback novel.

Must have been pretty popular since I read it in English class. The main character ends up driving north to Canada to see if he could get away from it. In time, he decided to go back to the states to check up on family etc. In the meantime, there was a coup in the USSR because of this. At the end of the book, the Soviet Union collapsed. On top of my head some very important works missed in this list: Greybeard by Aldiss. Looking backward by Bellami who forecasted the internet, amazon, credit cards in this book. The Long Walk by Stephen King.

Walden Two by Skinner.

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  • Ecotopia by Callenbach. I would beg you to consider Mockingbird Walter Trevis I was totally enthralled with not only the society created for the story but the secret reasons behind it. Or burning in Paris! The only thing I can remember is that the ending implies the main character was in a dream. Love this list. Given me many more books to seek out. I am plagued by memories of reading a book and cannot remember the title. Seem to recall a peaceful family travelling to an alien world on a spaceship. The family had been misread and the aliens saw them as peaceful, intelligent etc.

    However, a lot of bad, bad prisoners had also been put aboard and they start to murder the hosts. I seem to recall the hosts took two forms, one of which was a big white bird? Looking for a book, post-apocalyptic? Wild fire around the world? He barely makes it back inside to tell her that the sky was blue. She got thinking why would the sky be blue if the world is constantly at such a high temperature. Than she tries to figure out if the world outside the dome is really as bad as their government says it is or if it was the government burning people the moment they left.

    Looking for a book. But I just remember a group of kids maybe 3 or 4 somehow being ripped from their everyday lives and into this other universe where it is a completely white room, there are some stairs. And I think at one end there is a toilet. But all I remember is them suddenly being ripped out of this white filled universe and a scientist telling them it was all an experiment that used them.

    And the cover of the book was all white and there may have been a rabbit on it. I read this book when I was in middle school. It was such a shocking book to me at the time and I really would like to read it again. Sounds like House of Stairs by William Sleator. Is that right? So that film was my first notice of his story. It was dystopian as the whole world was suffering from pervasive wide unemployment and slow crumbling of economic status. Numbers of cops increasing both as a Gov Job program and to control social mayhem is part of it, and a weird aspect from then was the presence of a generation of big headed super-smart young adults in authority all over the world.

    An unemployed drifter in the area is the hero; he gets involved in a revolutionary movement that spends lots of time camping and practising martial arts. This ring any bells for anybody? Husband is looking for a book. He thinks it was published in the 70s. He comes back one time to find that another clone has space traveled to earth to kill him for something he made the clone do. Nebula Award Finalist: A prophetic look at the potential consequences of the escalating destruction of the Earth. In a near future, the air pollution is so bad that everyone wears gas masks.

    The infant mortality rate is soaring, and birth defects, new diseases, and physical ailments of all kinds abound.

    What happens when your DNA is damaged? - Monica Menesini

    Large corporations fighting over profits from gas masks, drinking water, and clean food tower over an ineffectual, corrupt government. Very prophetic.

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    • Read it when I was a teen back in the early 60s. Brings back a lot of good memories! They are living like their ancestors did with no way to defend themselves against modern technology but a neighboring planet full of some kind of radicalized Christians who are technologically advanced come to help them. Does anyone recognize this series of books? Hija, memories of a novel, early 80s, about US city that is protected by a wall, to keep the unwanted out.

      A bit like Europe today, millions trying to get in. Or did I dream it? Be grateful for any leads! I read a book a couple of years ago where all the kids in the community, including unborn infants started acting weird and then they all died…. I remember the main characters being the husband who was a garbage man and drank lots of beers, the kids being a boy around 7 and a girl around 4.

      The mom was a house wife and I think they had a dog too. Please help! I am desperately trying to find a book from the 80s or 90s i think. I was surprised to see there was very few Japanese works on this list. Earth Abides by George Stewart. Written in the s. Post Apocolyptic, though not ultimately dystopian if you favor starting over as a culture.

      Im looking for a book about a group of 3 friends who hack code and try to bring down a corporation. In the end it turns out that one of the kids cant remeber his past or anything, because he is a program. Its a relativily new book, I read it years ago. Im looking for a book about a school that trains kids to learn talents such as pick pocketing and credit card fruad.

      Its a cutthroat school where the alphas tend to kill thier rivals. It was such a cool story and nobody has ever read a story like that. It was about school age kids, I believe high school but it could have been college, who had to maintain a grade level of above a C or their name would be entered into a lottery. It was meant as a motivator to do your schoolwork but also as a means of population control of the less motivated in society. Ring any bells, anyone? Her goose was a hoot too. Then he rose to be the richest man on earth and even ownes his own planet and fell in love with a police woman..

      Plus there was also something there about advanced virtual reality. I am also looking for a book from the 80s late 70s. Characters are teens living in London during the Blitz. In the end, they discover everything is fake and that they are clones being raised by robots and everyone else is dead. I think it was called the Unicorn in the Sky but that title does not come up with anything.