The city is a major railroad terminal and the shipping center for north-eastern Argentina. The Port of Rosario is subject to silting and must be dredged periodically. Manufactured goods include flour, sugar, meat products, and other foodstuffs. Because it plays a critical role in agricultural commerce, the city finds itself at the center of a continuing debate over taxes levied on big-ticket agricultural goods such as soy.
The city's patron is the " Virgin of the Rosary ", whose feast day is October 7. The asteroid Rosario was named in its honor. Even though the city did not have a clear foundation date or any official acknowledgement thereof, most commentators state that Rosario was founded on 7 October with a local population of inhabitants.
In , captain Luis Romero de Pineda received part of the lands of the Pago de los Arroyos by royal decree, as payment for services to the Spanish Crown. These missions were ultimately attacked and destroyed by hostile tribes of the Chaco region. Romero de Pineda established the first permanent settlement, an estancia — intended as farmland, not as a town. In the Jesuits bought another part and established Estancia San Miguel.
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The area was still so scarcely populated that it had no central authority; it was ruled from the provincial capital Santa Fe , and in turn from Buenos Aires. In , another colonial settlement was initiated by Santiago de Montenegro, who set up a mill, drew plans for the future town, built a chapel , and was appointed mayor in The area of control of this local government extended northward from today's Rosario; only in was it divided into two smaller jurisdictions. Because of this, Rosario is known as the "Cradle of the Argentine Flag".
The National Flag Memorial marks the occasion. The province of Santa Fe greatly suffered the civil war that afflicted Argentina after Demographic growth was relatively slow. In it was elevated to the category of "village" Ilustre y Fiel Villa del Rosario. Charles Darwin travelled through the area in and described Rosario as "a large town" with about 2, residents.
As a reward for their participation in the Battle of Caseros , triumphant Urquiza wrote to the governor of Santa Fe on 9 June asking for Rosario to be granted city status. Governor Domingo Crespo justified the request at the provincial legislative body, marking the geographically strategic position of the town for national and international trade, and on 5 August Rosario was formally declared a city.
Urquiza opened up the river for free international trade. The city's economy and population expanded at an accelerated rate. By , Rosario had become the first export outlet of Argentina. During part of the second half of the 19th century, there was a movement promoting that the city of Rosario become the capital of the republic. Ovidio Lagos , founder of the oldest Argentine newspaper, La Capital , was one of the strongest defenders of this idea one of the main avenues in Rosario now carries his name.
In the last 15 years of the 19th century, the city more than doubled its population, in part due to immigration. In , workers and students took the streets to protest against the dictatorship Rosariazo. During the dictatorship started in , hundreds of citizens were " disappeared " by the government. In Argentina returned to democratic rule but hyperinflation caused the economic collapse of the country in In Rosario there were riots with episodes of looting. Under the Menem administration the situation became worse as the industrial sector of the city was dismantled by foreign competition and agricultural exports stagnated.
In unemployment in the area reached Since the recovery of the national economy that followed the collapse , Rosario's economic situation has improved. The boom in agricultural exports has caused a large increase in consumer spending and investment. His successor, Hermes Binner elected in , was elected Governor of Santa Fe in and became the runner-up in the presidential election on the FAP ticket.
Mayor Miguel Lifschitz 's administration, elected in , took advantage of the economic boom to invest heavily in public works , as well as in public health which takes up about a quarter of the whole budget. Palace of Justice c. Inauguration of the National Flag Memorial Rosario is ruled by an executive branch represented by a mayor seat: Palacio de los Leones , and a legislative branch, consisting of a Deliberative Council seat: Palacio Vassallo.
The mayor is elected for a four-year term, and the Council renews half of its 21 members every two years. Since , a municipal program of decentralization of legislative activities was carried out, materialized in 6 Municipal Centres of District Centre, North, South, West, Northwest and Southwest. The city is divided into six large administrative districts Center, North, Northwest, West, Southwest, and South , with Municipal District Centers that provide services to the population. For years, local people and institutions have been pushing the provincial government to grant Rosario the status of Autonomous City.
From Cavallero on , the mayor has been a member of the Socialist Party. The city does not have a police force of its own it is served by the provincial police , but in it pioneered the creation of a special patrol force of unarmed officers called Guardia Urbana Municipal "Municipal Urban Guard" which was imitated later by Buenos Aires and other cities. The municipality of Rosario comprises Of this area, 9.
Natural gas is provided to , homes. With the recovery of the national economy since , the city experienced a real-estate boom. Despite this increased supply, both price and rent have increased sharply compared to the values during the s. According to experts, this growth was propelled by the increased purchasing power of farmers around Rosario, helped by competitive exports, and the overall preference for safer investment options.
Rosario is the main epicentre of a metropolitan region whose economy is based on services and industry, generating the second largest urban gross regional product of Argentina, after Greater Buenos Aires. Other important sectors include the petrochemical sector, with three plants located in the suburbs of San Lorenzo and Port San Martin; the chemistry sector, with plants for sulphuric acid, fertilizers, resins and other products; the cellulose industry; the meat industry; ironworks; auto parts; the plants and equipment for bottled oil; agricultural machinery; and the materials and equipment for the construction industry.
The main financial bank at the city of Rosario is the Municipal Bank of Rosario. It is focused on small and medium enterprises and other organizations, especially through micro credits , and may be considered an " ethical bank. The Municipal Bank was founded in to support the financial needs of the citizens and small businesses in the highly productive region of southern Santa Fe Province, centered in Rosario. The idea of creating a municipal financial institution was expressed in by Mayor Floduardo Grandoli, citing the proliferation of "centers of usury " that exploited those in need of credit, especially the poor something not addressed by the profile of the Provincial Bank of Santa Fe , which granted loans only to demonstrably solvent persons.
Acting on this, the municipal Counseling Commission passed a bill on 1 February dictating an "Organic Charter of the Municipal Bank of Loans and Savings Accounts;" the bank opened exactly one year later. The seat of the bank was moved in Its name was changed to its present form on 14 May by a municipal bill.
Its location was moved again, for the last time so far, in A special clause was added, dictating that this minimum share is unchangeable, so as to prevent hypothetical attempts at privatization. The banking sector includes the state-owned Municipal Bank of Rosario , with branches and offices throughout the city, and the central branch of the New Bank of Santa Fe. The center focus mainly on research and development of the three following areas: biotechnology, software development and telecommunications.
Rosario has many cultural activities in many artistic disciplines with national and international reach. The city has produced important personalities in the fields of music, painting, philosophy, politics, poetry, literature, medicine, and law. If completed it will be one of the largest centers for musical performance in Latin America. In , after years without progress, it was put on indefinite hold due to financial constraints.
The city has several museums , including: Juan B. The Dr. Rosario also has a public astronomy complex, located in Urquiza Park , which consists of an observatory inaugurated in and a planetarium It has organized a Neapolitan music concert, performances of Madame Butterfly and numerous talks about the present and future of Argentina. The Independence Hippodrome opened on December 8 of , when the first ride meeting was held.
The Hippodrome was located in the heart of the Parque de la Independencia and occupied a prominent place in the city's social scene.
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In , construction began of the Popular Opinion. La Tribuna rises Partners in Moreover, it had begun the construction of a new box office. In , the Tribune Paddock formerly Partners Tribune was demolished. The final podium of professional construidaes, begun in Independence Hippodrome was the initiator in Argentina night time racing, with lighting facilities for this purpose. The racecourse features three tracks that are used for entertainment, vacation and skills.
This track is open on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for tests, with Sunday competitions. It was commissioned in and inaugurated on June 20, — the anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano , creator of the Argentine flag, who raised it for the first time on an island in the river on February 27, Under the Propylaeum there is the Honor Room for the Flags of America where the flags of all American nations are displayed.
The passage is flanked by statues by famous sculptor Lola Mora. The 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the complex, in , was marked by a special celebration and by the unveiling of a new lighting system. Architect Oscar Niemeyer came up with the concept by expanding the show from inside the theater to a much larger outside audience. Construction will begin at the end of and is expected to be completed by Located in Urquiza Park, Rosario's Municipal Astronomical Complex is one of the principal astronomical centers of the region.
The planetarium has a core team, together with its secondary elements, providing an artificial image of the sky, through projections made on a fixed hemispherical dome that functions as a display. The assembly is installed in the Room "Oscar Claudio Caprile", located in the heart of the magnificent building that is shaped like a comet.
For its technical characteristics in terms of size, quality of sound and image, and interior comfort, this room is considered among the best in the world. The building in the shape of comet forms a part of the complex that includes the "Prof. Victor Capolongo" observatory and the experimental science museum. Municipal Astronomical Observatory "Prof. Victor Capolongo" was inaugurated on June 18, and named its first director. The Observatory facilitates outreach, teaching and research in the field of astronomy and related sciences and informs the public of phenomena that occur in the sky, such as eclipses, planetary configurations, passages of comets, etc.
To that end, the Observatory has installed two telescopes. There are realized observations and astronomical photography of all the celestial visible objects in Rosario's sky, according to time of year and especially the Sun, the Moon and the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Mars and Venus. This museum was inaugurated on September 24, It is the first in Argentina and differs from traditional museums, in that it has equipment and instruments to demonstrate the laws of nature, which can be used by the general public in an interactive way. Thus, visitors of all ages can use telescopes and microscopes, or experiment with lasers, sound mixers, radios of various types, computers, solar cells, etc.
To complement this, exhibit panels have photographs and explanatory texts of science and technology: mathematics and computer science, engineering, physics, astronomy, astronautics, geology, chemistry and biology. In addition, an important area is intended for periodic samples, such as the Space Age , energy: renewable and rational use, from sand to glass, among others. The museum staff is supported by contributions from the Ministry of Science and Technology Office, the Municipality of Rosario and the contributions made by institutions and individuals.
The museum works in the evening similar to the Planetarium. Educational institutions at all levels are treated in shift assignments. The 4 metre-tall bronze statue of Che Guevara was unveiled on 14 June  to commemorate his 80th birthday. It is made from 75, bronze keys donated by Argentines nationwide  and weighs 2. The statue was made by artist Andres Zerneri and is the first such monument to Guevara in his native Argentina.
Rosario is located in the Province of Santa Fe , Argentina.
This metropolis has a population of about 1. These settlements were incorporated into the metropolis due to their vicinity to major roads leading into Rosario, and many people living there habitually commute to Rosario. The prelude to the economic crisis in the s largely dismantled the industrial infrastructure and damaged agricultural exports.
These sectors were largely revitalized by as the national economy continued to recover; but high levels of poverty and unemployment persist in the city's western neighborhoods official surveys indicated that in , 6. In the total population was , Most of them were Italian, and among them, a majority from the north-western region of Liguria.
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As of the Census, there are 1,, people residing in the city and 31 surrounding districts , making Greater Rosario the third-largest metro area in Argentina even as its population growth has leveled off. The ethnic make-up of Rosario changed in the late 19th century, when significant numbers of European immigrants arrived in the city. Prior to this, Rosario's population had been almost completely European-descent in ethnic origin.
As Buenos Aires was the first landfall in Argentina for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the s and s, Rosario started to experience a diverse influx of people. By the s, 43 percent of the city population was non-native Argentine after immigration rates peaked. Most immigrants, regardless of origin, settled in the city or around Greater Rosario. Christianity is the dominant faith with Roman Catholicism as the most practiced, followed by Protestantism.
Judaism is the second-most professed religion in the city as Rosario has one of the largest Jewish communities in Argentina. There is also a local Islamic society. Rosario is divided into six districts, most named by location although the eastmost is called Centre District as it includes the oldest part of the city historicaliy called Centro City Centre. At their confluence starts the Parque de la Independencia , that houses the Juan B.
The city ends in the Saladillo Stream. Next to the stadium there is the Parque Alem , and nearby the Sorrento thermal power plant. Kennedy's Alliance for Progress development plans and Rucci. An important part of Rosario's urban character is its river bank. Through the years, Rosario has spread in all directions. This is just south of the great barrio Grandoli. Next to the Rosario Central stadium there is a large park, Parque Alem , and not far from it there stands the Sorrento thermoelectric power plant.
North of the Lisandro de la Torre neighborhood there are Alberdi formerly an independent town , La Florida with a popular beach resort of the same name and Rucci. The main streets in the north are Alberdi Avenue and its continuation, Rondeau Boulevard which leads to the north exit of the city, the access to the Rosario-Victoria Bridge and the town of Granadero Baigorria. The Rosario public transport system includes buses, trolleybuses and taxicabs. The Rosario trolleybus system consists of only one main trunk line. Plaza Sarmiento is the hub of the city bus system, about 40 urban lines in the metropolitan area that provide service every 5 to 10 minutes.
Bus fares are pre-paid by means of either a rechargeable plastic card or a disposable paper card with a magnetic stripe which can be bought from post offices , automatic vending machines, and private businesses. For occasional use, a larger fare can be paid using a coin machine in the bus unit. The interurban lines have differential fares and some allow payment in cash only.
The municipal administration is phasing out the paper cards, in favor of the plastic ones, during the second half of The urban bus fleet was partially renewed during the recovery of the national economy, since , and consists of about units. In the average age of the buses was 5 years and 11 months. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 32, — Church, R.
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