Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Social Justice in the U. Description The U. The region has been long characterized by dual development, poor infrastructure, weak schools, health disparities and low-wage employment. More recently, the region has been affected by the violence associated with a drug and crime war in Mexico.
The premise of this book is that the U. The chapters address a variety of examples of injustice in the areas of environment, health disparity, migration unemployment, citizenship, women and gender violence, mental health, and drug violence. The book proposes a pathway to development. Illustrations note XII, p. Back cover copy The U. The Violence of Citizenship on the U. Several policy and issue areas hold significance for border people and everyday life in the borderlands, as covered in subsections below: Immigration Policies , trade, the shared environment, and security—the latter defined in multiple ways that range from national territorial control due to the unauthorized entry of people and goods to human security, food and shelter needs.
Both Mexico and the United States, seemingly bound by international United Nations protocols on asylum and human rights, practice or undermine adherence in mixed ways. Because of several Border Patrol blockades at the border in the early s, migrant movements were channeled around official ports into hot arid desert regions, where many travelers succumbed to the elements and died, with hundreds of remains found annually and others never found.
Though increasingly expensive and dangerous, migrants hire what are called coyotes to guide them into the United States; Spener is one of the in-depth studies of coyotaje in depth. Though difficult to estimate, the current numbers and long-term trends related to undocumented people inside the United States are best understood through reading studies based on data from the Pew Research Center; Jeffrey Passel has frequently been the lead author see Passel, et al.
Heyman, Josiah McC. Edited by Cecilia Menjivar and Daniel Kanstroom, — Heyman, an anthropologist and prolific writer on immigration, examines not only the ways that changing policies and practices criminalize immigrants but also the agency that immigrants exercise in response.
In , he edited a pioneering volume in this vein entitled States and Illegal Practices. Nevins, Joseph. New York: Routledge, This is the most recent of several books in which political scientist Nevins critiques US policies and hateful rhetoric against immigrants in the apartheid-like separation at the border.
The focus is on the Pacific borderlands. Ngai, Mae. Ngai offers a foundational historical and contemporary analysis of immigration into the United States, a must-read for anyone beginning research on immigration. Insights on the historically changing standards and laws about admission into the United States should be essential to readers who look at immigration through the contemporary lens only. Demographer Jeffrey Passel and colleagues use quantitative data from Mexican and US censuses and databases to illustrate trends since the s.
Graphs illustrate that migration from Mexico peaked in the year This and other fine studies from the Pew Research Center have implications for the politics of immigration policy and the Department of Homeland Security. Spener, David.
Based on years of ethnographic and in-depth interviews in South Texas, sociologist Spener analyzes what he conceptualizes as the resistance of working-class Mexicans to the apartheid-like immigration and border regime. He categorizes different types of coyotes , from the small-scale guides to the exploitative traffickers, the latter demonized in US political rhetoric.
As crossing becomes more difficult, the prices migrants pay rise, with prices no doubt much higher than the amounts cited in this book. Several factors make immigration law enforcement problematic.
The American Immigration Council analyzed complaint data from a DHS agency Customs and Border Protection and critiqued the organization culture that protected rogue agents, while Maril presents a much more sympathetic picture of complex situations that field agents face on the ground. Moreover, immigration law is complex and continuously changing, as are political directions from Washington, DC.
Finally, just as in domestic law enforcement, fear, hatred, and racial profiling all burden persons of color, whether people of Mexican heritage in the US borderlands or crossing from countries to the south. American Immigration Council. As students of bureaucracy have long analyzed, street-level bureaucrats operate with discretion and do not necessarily comply with policy edicts or laws.
Using a FOIA Freedom of Information Act request to obtain data from Customs and Border Protection, researchers analyzed over eight hundred abuse complaints and found that in 97 percent of the cases, no action was taken. The highest number of complaints came from the Tucson sector. Andreas, Peter. Border Games: Policing the U.
From global and international relations perspectives on smuggling, Andreas asks why border policing controls have increased through the s. Through interviews with federal officials, official documents, and journalist accounts, he answers the question with the confluence of border openings under NAFTA and the need to package the image of control to the US public. Maril, Robert Lee. Patrolling Chaos: The U. Border Patrol in Deep South Texas.
Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, Deeds, and Scott Whiteford, eds. Between introductory and concluding chapters, the editors offer fourteen chapters on the ethical and practical challenges of research with vulnerable populations, plus an appended Code of Personal Ethics. While useful for courses on research design, many chapter authors also provide findings about immigrants, health, and small business people, with a special focus on the Arizona-Sonora borderlands. The US-Mexico border region is one of the most unequal in the world, measured in terms of legal minimum wage and Gross Domestic Product per capita.
Lugo used ethnographic methods to analyze gendered behavior of men and women in production and Young used large quantitative samples. At that time, factories recruited an 80 percent female labor force. The author uses mixed methods surveys, interviews, documents in this baseline study. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, Both authors, who are urban planners, use data on formal employment and Geographic Information System GIS maps to show startling spatial contrasts in this urban region of two million on the central US-Mexico borderlands.
They offer GIS maps on percent employed in manufacturing, dependency ratios, and percent of households with plumbing. Municipal and state police hardly prioritized women-killing, but instead operated with impunity. Lugo, Alejandro. After historical analysis of the invention of border geography, anthropologist Lugo joins other scholars who have studied export-assembly factories maquiladoras , drawing on his participant observation and comparative analysis of three maquiladoras in which he worked as part of his study design.
Unique for his theoretical innovations, he also analyzes gendered work i. Young, Gay. Sociologist Young, using quantitative methods, compares a large sample of women maquiladora workers to a matched sample of women service workers, following up with qualitative material about how women survive in still-male-dominated work and family environments. Maquiladora workers earn less than service workers. Many economists and Washington, DC scholars lauded and continue to celebrate NAFTA for its effects on growth rates and increases in the gross domestic product, but downplay the increase in inequalities between both countries and the still-high poverty rates, using the poverty standard that is set in Mexico, of half the population.
The free-trade boosters below included Lee and Wilson , Pastor , and Weintraub , while Villarreal and Ferguson provide a balanced data-rich description of free-trade winners and losers. US consumer demand for drugs continues, with ruthless criminal suppliers, despite or because of the relatively ineffective US border interdiction strategies as Mexican and US scholars in chapters in Payan, et al. Lee, Eric, and Christopher Wilson, eds. Washington, DC: Wilson Center, The partially congressionally subsidized Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, home to a Mexico Center, offers reports, seminars, webinars, and visiting scholar opportunities.
Pastor, Robert. New York: Oxford University Press, The late Robert Pastor long advocated economic integration, but argued that the idea has declined in the last decades, despite the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA , a trade agreement which stopped short of more open, integrated borders.
Payan, Tony, Kathleen Staudt, and Z. Anthony Kruszewski, eds.
Selected Immigration Organizations
Mexican and US scholars offer eleven chapters plus an introduction and conclusion on the more than forty-year-old US policy of border interdiction. Chapter authors present different perspectives, most of which challenge the effectiveness of the drug war. Pisani, Michael J. Using statistical analysis of demographic variables, he finds extensive use of such services, including cross-border workers, particularly among affluent households seeking to save time on domestic chores at lower prices.
These practices go relatively untouched by government regulation. Staudt, Kathleen. Free Trade? Informal Economies at the U. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Informal work generates more earnings than maquiladora assembly labor, especially if Mexican informal workers cross the borderline. Villarreal, M. Angeles, and Ian F. Weintraub, Sidney, ed. Although somewhat dated, the controversies over the — NAFTA renegotiation process make a quick read worth the time. The US-Mexico border, with its two sovereign countries and heavy industrial manufacturing in major Mexican cities, has become a magnet for pollution, poverty, and periodic spurts of violence on the Mexico side, due to its problematic law enforcement compared to the US side, which is home to the safest big cities San Diego, El Paso in the country.
Research on border security ranges from attention to national territorial controls Ackleson , Seelke and Finklea to human security Dunn , Lorentzen , Simmons and Mueller to threatening policy-relevant problems in health Homedes and Ugalde , the environment Ingram and Laney ; Morales, et al. Other scholars analyze the folly of walling up the border Dear and failing to realize the complexity of transnational criminal organizations like Los Zetas that use similar tactics to global big business Correa-Cabrera Ackleson, Jason.
Political scientist Ackleson examines the way border security is constructed in risk and threat terms, focusing on policy solutions for undocumented immigration, terrorism, and drugs. Ackleson now directs strategy for the Department of Homeland Security. Correa-Cabrera, Guadalupe. Los Zetas Inc.
- Social Justice in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region?
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Political scientist Correa-Cabrera analyzes the rise of the Zetas and the Gulf Cartel, both of which have transformed into transnational criminal organizations TCOs with a complex business model. Contains many maps.
In Pursuit of Safe Drinking Water in the Texas-Mexico Border Region: A Matter of Social Justice
Dear, Michael. Based on travels all along and on both sides of the U. He makes provocative arguments about the folly of closing and walling up the border, of a border industrial complex, and of increasing litigation over privately owned land with more wall construction. Dunn, Timothy. Drawing on two competing rights-oriented frameworks, national-citizenship-based versus transnational-human rights-based, sociologist Dunn provides an in-depth case analysis of the border blockade renamed Operation Hold the Line. Congress and served multiple terms as the border became more militarized. They identified numerous barriers that ranged from political and professional to administrative, legal, and cultural despite the shared ethnic and bilingual characteristics of people on both sides of the border.
Also available online. Ingram, Helen, and Nancy Laney. Divided Waters: Bridging the U. Seemingly dated, this book is nevertheless a foundational text for understanding water rights, water agreements, and shared water usage, with a special focus on the Arizona-Sonora border region. Lorentzen, Lois Ann, ed. In this three-volume comprehensive series, theology and religious studies scholar Lorentzen assembles a dozen chapters each from well-known researchers in immigration, human rights, and border studies.
Volume 1 focuses on history, theories, and legislation; Volume 2 on human rights, gender and sexualities, health, and Education ; and Volume 3 on economics, politics, and morality. Excellent bibliographies can be found for all the approximate forty chapters. Morales, Oscar, Jr. Grineski, and Timothy W. The combination of proximity to neighborhoods, lax environmental law implementation, and limited firefighter capability makes potential explosion such as what occurred in Bhopal, India, dangerous not only for Juarenses but also for its spillover effects into El Paso, a combined metropolitan area of over two million people.
Mumme, Stephen, and Kimberly Collins. The authors praise the detailed vision and lasting agreement signed in by both countries, defining the border as one hundred kilometers north and one hundred kilometers south of the territorial line. The agreement was supposed to provide leverage to governments and nongovernment organizations to prohibit environmental pollution and waste practices dangerous to health within the border region.
Like many bilateral agreements, however, the agreement lacks teeth and requires extraordinary public will to maintain human safety and security in the borderlands. Seelke, Clare, and Kristin M. Shirk, David A.
David V. Carruthers
Drawing on many years of border crime research and his leadership in and analysis of the over-4,victim database in the Justice in Mexico Project at the University of San Diego, political scientist Shirk looks at reasons for the rise and fall of what he calls ordinary homicides and drug killings. Notably, no spillover effects occurred in San Diego and El Paso, among the consistently rated safest big cities as measured annually by CQ Press a division of Sage Publications. Simmons, William Paul, and Carol Mueller, eds. Binational Human Rights: The U.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, With one editor who specializes in international law and the other a comparative sociologist, contributors pursue the relatively underresearched human rights topic in depth. Several chapters draw on international relations theories about transnational advocacy networks as they interact with local organizations yet remain unable to surmount the structural obstacles posed by rights abuse.
Fronteras No Mas: Toward Social Justice at the U.S.-Mexico Border
She analyzes the agency of social movement activists on both sides of the border and their spread worldwide. She also draws on a survey of over four hundred women aged 15—39, most of whom do not trust or call the police, but lacking resources, remain in dangerous households. Despite the fact that many US-border-based K and higher-education students and their parents attended schools in Mexico, few studies exist on the comparative or transnational experience and implications for policy and best practices in teaching and learning but see Rippberger and Staudt US-based students with parents who migrated from Mexico, often bilingual, undergo required standardized testing in English and little academic content on Mexico or the borderlands Noboa Moreover, harsh immigration enforcement, witnessing violence in home countries, or the migration journey all bear heavily on students who may have been taken across the border as children without documents; yet some students exude resilience Araujo and de la Piedra or civic capacity Dunn along with their parents in community organizations Shirley Furthermore, with mass deportations, US-schooled children are increasingly deported to Mexico where they may struggle with Spanish and other obstacles see Immigration Policies.
Edited by Zulma Y. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Using ethnography in an elementary school, language education specialists analyze the resilience of elementary school children in a bilingual class citing evocative quotes of their narratives and experiences. This prelude to the blockade also generated a subsequent lengthy and lively documentary, The Time has Come , about harassment and human agency in response through alliances and lawsuits. Noboa, Julio. Rippberger, Susan, and Kathleen Staudt.
New York: Falmer Routledge, Authors showed the video not available with the book , edited and reduced to nearly an hour, to students, teachers, and administrators on each side of the border to verify interpretation and to solicit reactions in verbal and survey forms. Shirley, Dennis.
Valley Interfaith, a coalition of faith-based organizations in the border region of the Rio Grande Valley, is connected to the Texas IAF and its affiliates in a dozen other parts of Texas to pursue social justice reforms. With the growth of border studies in many parts of the world, especially in Europe with support from generous EU European Union research funds, scholars have turned to comparative border politics and policy analysis. Scholarly production sometimes includes chapters on the politics of the US-Mexico border.
In several edited volumes with a state-centric policy approach, scholars compare differences in the three countries of North America: Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Closely linked but including Europe, Brunet-Jailly , Jones , and Longo have compared US and North American approaches to territorial security with those of Europe, while Albert and Brock compare their different approaches to binational cooperation and Naples and Mendez to cross-border nongovernmental organizations.
Albert, Mathias, and Lothar Brock. Edited by Kathleen Staudt and David Spener, — International Relations IR scholars Albert and Brock reflect on bordering and debordering, drawing briefly on various border regions in Europe and North America. They find the Cascadia Region in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada to be more advanced in debordering than the US-Mexico borderlands.
Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel, ed. Since the September 11, attacks, security measures have tightened on the borders of the United States. Like in Europe, the combination of freer trade and increased security measures in borderlands creates potential policy contradictions between the facilitation of speedier freer trade and national security, as well as between capital cities and the borderlands.
A perusal of various chapters shows readers that security measures are tighter and costlier in the US-driven North American policy area compared to Europe specifically the Schengen area of European Union member countries. Donnan, Hastings, and Thomas M. Wilson, eds.
A Companion to Border Studies. London: Wiley Blackwell, In this the larger border studies tome, the anthropologist editors argue for a comparative turn in border studies. Alvarez, Jr. Journal of Borderlands Studies The editors and authors build on the town-twinning idea alternatively called town pairs, couples conceptualized in a Geopolitics issue to elevate analysis. In Europe the concept works well, joining the local and international, ahead of nation-state connections in some cases.